E-ISSN 2636-8765 | ISSN 2146-9490
 

Review Article 


Predicting Factors of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Process and Outcome for Panic Disorder: An Overview of Mechanisms of Change

Hazal Selinay Kılıç, Özden Yalçınkaya Alkar.

Abstract
Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by panic attacks which includes abrupt, intense, unexpected and recurrent fear and worry about possible future attacks. The disorder requires an effective treatment and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for panic disorder has been proven to be beneficial in various studies. However, despite the effects, studies also demonstrate that people receiving treatment do not always improve to the same extent and that symptoms may relapse after treatment. Therefore, it is important to investigate factors that may promote better treatment outcomes in the long term. In this regard, it was aimed to review the cognitive behavior therapy process applied for panic disorder and examine factors predicting the outcome. Firstly, definition of panic disorder and its importance, then the assumptions and methods of CBT for panic disorder were described. Following that, in accordance with the main aim of the review, predictors of therapy process and outcome were examined. Predictors were divided into factors present before treatment and factors associated with therapy process. Those present before treatment are characteristics of the disorder, comorbid diagnosis and social environment conditions. Factors associated with therapy process included expectations from therapy, adherence, therapeutic alliance and cognitive and behavioral change mechanisms in CBT for PD. Change mechanisms encompassed catastrophizing misinterpretations, anxiety sensitivity, panic self-efficacy, temporal change and safety behaviors, which had been demonstrated to predict decreases in panic symptoms. Lastly, substantial points of the literature review were emphasized, and some suggestions were offered in the discussion section.

Key words: panic disorder, cognitive behavioral therapy, treatment outcome, therapy


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Hazal Selinay Kılıç|Özden Yalçınkaya Alkar|. [Predicting Factors of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Process and Outcome for Panic Disorder: An Overview of Mechanisms of Change]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/JCBPR.138819


Web Style

Hazal Selinay Kılıç|Özden Yalçınkaya Alkar|. [Predicting Factors of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Process and Outcome for Panic Disorder: An Overview of Mechanisms of Change]. http://www.jcbpr.org/?mno=138819 [Access: September 04, 2021]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/JCBPR.138819


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Hazal Selinay Kılıç|Özden Yalçınkaya Alkar|. [Predicting Factors of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Process and Outcome for Panic Disorder: An Overview of Mechanisms of Change]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/JCBPR.138819



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Hazal Selinay Kılıç|Özden Yalçınkaya Alkar|. [Predicting Factors of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Process and Outcome for Panic Disorder: An Overview of Mechanisms of Change]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/JCBPR.138819



Harvard Style

Hazal Selinay Kılıç|Özden Yalçınkaya Alkar| (2021) [Predicting Factors of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Process and Outcome for Panic Disorder: An Overview of Mechanisms of Change]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/JCBPR.138819



Turabian Style

Hazal Selinay Kılıç|Özden Yalçınkaya Alkar|. 2021. [Predicting Factors of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Process and Outcome for Panic Disorder: An Overview of Mechanisms of Change]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/JCBPR.138819



Chicago Style

Hazal Selinay Kılıç|Özden Yalçınkaya Alkar|. "[Predicting Factors of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Process and Outcome for Panic Disorder: An Overview of Mechanisms of Change]." Turkish. doi:10.5455/JCBPR.138819



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Hazal Selinay Kılıç|Özden Yalçınkaya Alkar|. "[Predicting Factors of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Process and Outcome for Panic Disorder: An Overview of Mechanisms of Change]." Turkish. doi:10.5455/JCBPR.138819



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Hazal Selinay Kılıç|Özden Yalçınkaya Alkar| (2021) [Predicting Factors of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Process and Outcome for Panic Disorder: An Overview of Mechanisms of Change]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/JCBPR.138819